### Introduction

JavaScript is a versatile programming language that provides developers with a rich set of built-in methods to manipulate arrays. One such method is `reduce()`

, which allows you to perform powerful operations on arrays by reducing them to a single value. In this article, we will explore the concept of `reduce()`

, its benefits, and learn how to write our own polyfill for the `reduce()`

method.

### Understanding Array.reduce():

The `reduce()`

method is used to **iterate over an array and accumulate a single value** by applying a provided function to each element.

*It takes two parameters: a callback function and an optional initial value*. *The callback function receives 4 arguments: an accumulator (the value accumulated so far), the current element being processed, the current index from the array & the entire array.*

The callback function can perform any operation on the elements and modify the accumulator as needed. The `reduce()`

method returns the final accumulated value.

### Benefits of using Array.reduce():

The `reduce()`

method offers several advantages that make it a powerful tool for array manipulation:

Summarizing Data:

`reduce()`

allows you to calculate a single value based on the elements of an array. For example, you can easily find the sum, product, or average of an array of numbers using the`reduce()`

method.Transforming Data: By providing a transformation function, you can use

`reduce()`

to convert an array into a different data structure or format. This is particularly useful when dealing with complex data manipulations or aggregations.Filtering Data:

`reduce()`

can be used to filter out specific elements from an array based on a condition. You can accumulate only the desired elements by applying filtering logic within the callback function.Performing Complex Operations: With

`reduce()`

, you can perform more complex operations such as finding the maximum or minimum value, concatenating strings, or even building entirely new arrays.

Now, that you know what is reduce method & its usage. Let's get started with writing the polyfill for reduce method.

### Polyfill for Array.prototype.reduce

Let me first show you the entire code, then we will go step by step understanding bits and pieces of it.

```
Array.prototype.myReduce = function (callbackFn, initialValue) {
if (this.length === 0 && initialValue === undefined) {
throw new TypeError("cant perform reduce of an empty array with no initial value");
}
if (initialValue === undefined) {
initialValue = this[0];
}
let acc = initialValue;
let i = 0;
if (arguments.length < 2) {
// meaning: if there is no initial value, the 1st index of array is taken in acc, so we will be iterating from 2nd.
i = 1;
}
// callback function takes, (acc, curr, index, array)
for (; i < this.length; i++) {
acc = callbackFn(acc, this[i], i, this);
}
return acc;
};
```

We are adding the function to `Array.prototype`

so that we can directly use it on arrays with the dot notation and with the name `myReduce`

.

**Looking for Edge cases:**

In the `reduce`

implementation, we notice that, if we provide an empty array length & with no initial value, we get a TypeError with the message as presented below

Hence, we are adding our first check

```
if (this.length === 0 && initialValue === undefined) {
throw new TypeError("cant perform reduce of an empty array with no initial value");
}
```

Next, we are checking if the user has provided the `initialValue`

or not. Based on the definition of reduce from MDN we know that if there is not `initialValue`

defined, then we pass on the 1st index of the array.

And that is why we add this check

```
if (initialValue === undefined) {
initialValue = this[0];
}
```

Now, from the definition, we know that the accumulator is the total value so far & in the 1st iteration, it will be equivalent to the 1st index of the array element.

We also perform a check,

```
let i = 0;
if (arguments.length < 2) {
i = 1;
}
```

This is to know that if we had got an `initialValue`

at the start, if not, then we are assigning `i=1`

which means the iteration will start from `1`

simply because now `acc`

has the 1st index of the array.

If not, the iteration will start from `0`

with the `initialValue`

provided by the user.

Next, we have a simple for loop which iterates over the array and calls the callback function & thus returning the `acc`

aka accumulator.

```
for (; i < this.length; i++) {
acc = callbackFn(acc, this[i], i, this);
}
return acc;
```

Combine all of these steps, and you get ๐

```
Array.prototype.myReduce = function (callbackFn, initialValue) {
if (this.length === 0 && initialValue === undefined) {
throw new TypeError("cant perform reduce of an empty array with no initial value");
}
if (initialValue === undefined) {
initialValue = this[0];
}
let acc = initialValue;
let i = 0;
if (arguments.length < 2) {
i = 1;
}
for (; i < this.length; i++) {
acc = callbackFn(acc, this[i], i, this);
}
return acc;
};
```

That's it, folks.

I hope this was useful and made the `reduce`

method more clear now.

I have also written other polyfills & I am maintaining this repository on github, check it out & give it a star.

Thank you!